Market Leader ESP Book - Working Across Cultures

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You shouldn't take rejection personally. You must know how far you will negotiate. You should approach selling with a positive mindset. Skills: Negotiating: reach ing agreement Students discuss negotiating tips, listen to a negotiation between an electric-car salesman and a buyer who represents a city's government, and look at the language of agreement and disagreement.

They then role-play the negotiation of the sale of the electric cars. If there are more than about 10 students, divide the class into four groups- two group As and two Bs. The idea here is that deciding the most important tips is itself a negotiating process.


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Insist on correct pronunciation of the contractions We'd and I'll. Give students plenty of time to assimilate the information and prepare their roles. Note language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially negotiation language. This role play can be done between teacher and student. Ask the student about their negotiating plan, the tactics they were using, etc.

Students study the background and role-play negotiations between the two companies. You could also appoint an observer for each negotiation. The observer does not take part but notes down key points from the negotiating process - how and when each side makes concessions, points they do not concede, etc. Meanwhile, write up the headings on the left of the table below on the board, but don't put in the other information.

Have them note down the agenda items. You could also appoint a lead negotiator in each team if you think this will help. Get them to write down key expressions they will use, like the ones in italics under 'Length of contract' on the role cards. Check that they look at the agenda for the meeting, as well as the information on their role cards. If you appointed an observer, get them to describe the process.

Point out that it should cover all five points on the agenda. This letter can be done for homework. This unit focuses on d ifferent cultures' ways of saying 'no' politely. Encourage them first to read the sentences silently to themselves, then to look up from their book and say the sentences with feeling. Let them practise several times, changing roles. Encourage them to perform the exchanges from memory rather than by reading.

Briefly explain each situation and answer any questions students may have. Scanned for Agus Suwanto 35 Revision ;;tl m This unit revises and reinforces some of the key language points from Units and from Working across cultures 1. Course Book page numbers are given below. Modals page 10 1 Can 6 would 3 could 8 Can 2 Would 7 Would 5 can 4 could 9 could Sample answer Dear Mr Ulrich, Skills page 11 Following our meeting last week, I'm pleased to say that we're ready to move ahead with a distribution agreement.

I enclose a d raft contract for your approval. Please could you read through it and let me know if you would like to make any changes or additions. Part A 1d 2f 3g 4a 5c 6h 7b 8e 4g 5d 6c 7h 8i Part 8 1f 2b 3e 9a I look forward to doing business with you. Yours sincerely, 2 Companies Vocabulary pages Cultures 1 : Saying 'no' politely 1 pharmaceutical 5 share price 2 turnover 6 Spanish subsidiary 3 net profit 7 parent company 4 workforce..

Maybe some other time. I t was delicious. You'll have to ask Keith. I'd love to, but I have other plans that day. Vocabulary: Verb and noun combinations Students look at and use typical verb and noun combinations in relation to new ideas, opportunities, etc. Language review: Past simple and past continuous The two tenses are compared and contrasted. Students then use them in the context of an article about the inventor of Post-it notes. Skills: Successful meetings Students look at what makes for successful meetings and listen to a meeting in progress.

They then study meetings language. Case study: The new attraction A rich man has set up a competition that will encourage great ideas for a new visitor attraction. In organisations, the best way of killing an idea may well be to take it to a meeting. The very things that make companies successful in one area may prevent them from developing success in new activities.

Early work on personal computers at Xerox was dismissed by its senior managers because they considered that the company's business was copying, not computing. Company leaders talk about corporate venturing and intrapreneurship, where employees are encouraged to develop entrepreneurial activities within the organisation. Companies may try to set up structures in such a way that they do not stifle new ideas. They may put groups of talented people together in skunk works to work on innovations - development of the PC at I B M is the most famous example.

Skunk works are outside the usual company structures and are less likely to be hampered by bureaucracy, in-fighting, and so on. The inventor of the small-wheeled Moulton bicycle could not persuade Raleigh to produce it, so he set up his own company. But a single innovative breakthrough is not enough. There has to be continuous improvement and market response.

The current winners in bicycle innovation are producers of mountain bikes, who have taken the original bicycle design and eliminated its irritations, revolutionising an old concept by providing relative comfort, easy gear changes, a 'fun' ride, and so on. The initial idea for a car will be turned into a series of prototypes and tested. In software development, the final 'prototype' is the beta version, which is beta-tested.

Pharmaceuticals go through a series of trials. Even the most brilliant entrepreneurs will not have the resources to go it alone in industries like these, as the investment and experience required are enormous. Cars, software and pharmaceuticals are examples of industries dominated by giants. The 'rules of the game' are well established, and newcomers are rare, unless they can find a small niche unexploited by the giants. There may be more opportunity for innovation where the rules of the game are not yet established. This may involve selling and delivering existing products in new ways: think, for example, of selling books and airline tickets on the Internet.

One thing is certain: business will continue to benefit from the creativity of individuals and organisations who can develop great ideas and bring them to market. Work on the pronunciation of idea if necessary. Some possibilities are given below. Tell them a little about the things you will be doing, using the table on page 37 of this book as a guide. The text in the Course Book is the audio script with gaps. A few ideas: 2 extend its product range 3 enter a market 4 make a breakthrough 5 meet a need - Early critics of railways believed the human body couldn't withstand the speed of train travel.

Which ones do they think will become more accepted over time? Assist with any remaining difficulties. Play the recording and have students write the answers. The second question is one o f imagination. What sort o f dream invention would you like to see? Students listen to an Oxford University researcher talk about the best business ideas of the past 1 5 years. Students read about three good business ideas and exchange information about them.

Students do the exercise individually. The USB stick, because it enables data and pictures to be easily transportable. The digital camera, because it's revolutionised photography and is incorporated into many other devices. Encourage students who don't normally say much to act as spokesperson. Who needs translators? Students then use them in context. Note down language points for praise and correction, especially those relating to the language of meetings. Be tactful about meetings in the students' own organisation s and culture s. It's probably good to have at the meeting only those who really need to be there and to limit this number as far as possible.

However, large meetings can be successful if they are well chaired. Coffee and water may be freely available, but snacks between meals are unknown in some places. The working lunch is a possibility in some places, with perhaps sandwiches in the meeting room or lunch in a restaurant. In some places, starting a 2 o'clock meeting at 2. You could also discuss the shape of the table - for example whether round tables make for more 'democratic' meetings.

This is a good opportunity to teach chair in the sense of chairman or chairwoman. Perhaps this is a good opportunity to teach Please let me finish. Focus students' attention on how the two tenses are used in the examples in the Language review box. Be aware that some of the language here may sound very accusatory, and that some students may not be comfortable with that. Tell students to be careful with I don't agree, which has to be said with 'softening' intonation.

Nominate a chair Student A and allocate the other roles. Make sure the chair is ready to use the chairing language and the participants are ready to use their language. Note language, especially meetings-related language, for praise and correction afterwards. Tell the groups that their ideas must be creative, exciting and innovative.

They should remember that marketing considerations are very important for any tourist attraction. Play it again if necessary, then go through the answers. Work on difficult vocabulary and write up notes about the three attractions on the board. Ask a member of each group to say what its chosen attraction is. Note them on the board. Presenters should be prepared to respond to questions from the class.

One-to-one This case study can be done as a discussion between teacher and student followed by a presentation by the student. You may have to assist less imaginative groups with ideas. Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially meetings-related language from the Useful language box on page They should recommend one of the attractions chosen by the class, outline its key features and say why it represents a commercial opportunity.

This report can be done for homework. Lesson 2. Practice File Vocabulary page 20 Vocabulary: Stress in the workplace Students look at stress-related vocabulary. Then they compare stress levels in different jobs and in their own job. Listening: Dealing with stress Students listen to a director of a health-at-work consultancy talking about stress. Reading: Business owners feeling stressed Students read about business owners feeling a recent increase in stress levels. Lesson 3 Language review: Past simple and present perfect The tenses are compared and contrasted.

Students then do exercises to find the correct tense and use the correct tense with time expressions. Skills: Participating in discussions Students listen to members of a human resources department talking about ways of improving the staff's health and then use these expressions in another context. Case study: Davies-Miller Advertising Students analyse and tackle problems of stress and low morale in an advertising agency that has recently lost two major accounts.

For this, a reasonable amount of pressure may be necessary: many employees want work that stretches them, to have the feeling that it can sometimes be difficult, but that it is also stimulating and challenging. This is necessary if one is to have pleasant feelings of achievement. But when pressure builds up, it's easy to feel overwhelmed by work, and this can produce feelings of stress.

It is possible to become stressed out through overwork or other problems. People can burn out, become so stressed and tired that they may never be able to work again. The general consensus is that most jobs have become more demanding, with longer hours and greater pressures. OJ c: Vl z m Vl Vl OJ m "'T'1 More and more people want to get away from what they call the rat race or the treadmill, the feeling that work is too competitive, and are looking for lifestyles that are less stressful o r completely unstressful.

They are looking for more relaxed ways o f living and working, perhaps in the country. Some people choose to work from home so as to be nearer their families. People are looking for a better quality of life, a healthier work-life balance. Perhaps they are looking for more quality time with their partners and children. Choosing to work in less stressful ways is known as downshifting or rebalancing. A whole stress industry has grown up, with its stress counsellors and stress therapists giving advice on how to avoid stress and on how to lessen its effects.

However, other experts say that stress levels today are lower than they used to be. They point to the d ifficult working conditions and long hours of our great-grandparents. Perhaps the answer is that the material advantages of modern times give us the illusion that we should have more control over our lives. Like lottery winners who q uickly become accustomed to the idea of being rich, we become 'spoilt' by material comforts and start to worry when we think we are losing even a little control over events.

Whatever the truth, people love to talk about the stress of their work. In the language classroom there should be no shortage of students willing to talk at length about the stress they are under. This stress might even be part of their job satisfaction. Read on P. Tell them a little about the things you will be doing, using the table on page 44 of this book as a guide.

Ask if any students always think rest is boring. Students discuss stressful situations and ways of relaxing. Do students consider all these situations to be stressful? For example, not all students may consider going to the dentist to be stressful. Insist on the correct use of stress, stressful, etc. Do not accept stressing. While they are doing this, write the 10 situations up on the board, as below.

If there are more than 10 students, get them to do the ranking in pairs or threes and complete the table with scores given by each pair or three. Of course, your students may not have experience of these situations. If that is the case, ask them to imagine how stressful it would be if they did have to do them. Making a presentation to senior executives 51 52 53 54 ' 55 56 Total 5 8 3 4 6 30 Leading a formal meeting 2 waiting 5 shopping 8 making 3 being 6 moving 9 travelling ' i Writing a report with a tight deadline , Negotiating a : very valuable contract Meeting important.

Asking your boss for a pay rise.. Dealing with a customer who has a major complaint Covering for a colleague who is away Taking part in a conference ' call. Point out the connection between workaholic and alcoholic. You could also mention shopaholic. Fiexitime is flextime in ArnE, but don't raise this unless someone mentions it. Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially those relating to stress.

Then have them turn to page for the answers. Some will be very willing to say how much stress they are under see Business brief for this unit. Get them to talk about specific problems, for example deadlines. For question 3, you could say that some people are workaholics because they want to be seen to be working hard in order to get promotion, or because of insecurity. Get your students to suggest other ideas. For example, the stress felt by many actors might be related to finding work in the first place, teachers from aggressive students, etc.

Students listen to a director of a health-at-work consultancy talking about stress. She discusses how she helps companies deal with stress and different causes of stress in men and women. Write students' ideas quickly on the board, for example long hours, deadlines, endless meetings, competition and conflict with colleagues. If your students are pre-work, ask them what is most stressful about being a student, for example essays and exams. Ask students to make notes. Check the answers with the whole class. So, although you might be doing quite well at managing stress for a long period of time, if it continues without any break, then people sometimes tip over into feeling very stressed.

Encourage discussion, especially on points where opinions differ. C Resource bank: Listening page Reading: Business owners feeling stressed Students read about a survey that found that business owners all over the world are feeling more stressed than ever. Read the question. Play the recording. Check answers with the whole class. Women are more open about their feelings and therefore feel more comfortable in reporting feeling under pressure or feeling stressed.

Praise good language you heard and work on half a dozen points that need improving, getting individual students to say the correct forms. Encourage them to give specific examples, if possible. Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially relating to the language of stress.

Take things slowly and don't expect students to get things right first time. These two examples are with time expressions: for five years and for three years respectively. Yes, she does.

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B: Yes, I have. A: Where did you go? B: I went to New York. Skills: Participating i n discussions Students listen to members of a human resources department talking about ways of improving the staff's health and then use these expressions in another context. When you have a time expression referring entirely to the past 'finished time' - last weekend, on Monday, etc. When you have a time expression referring to 'time up to now' just, so far, etc. Note: item Sb may be heard in ArnE. Explain any difficulties e.

Before they start, make sure they have understood the distinction between 'finished time' and 'time up to now'. They can invent things if they wish. Also get them to say whether the expressions they don't hear are agreeing o r disagreeing. For example, Mm, I don't know is a way of disagreeing politely. Work on intonation and try to eliminate any tendency for students to say I am agree or I am not agree. Put students into pairs and tell them that they should treat the three points as an agenda for the discussion.

Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially language used for discussions. Praise correct use of the expressions in the Useful language box and work on points for improvement, getting individual students to say the correct forms. Play the recording once or twice for students to make notes. Suggested key points 1 James has disappeared in the middle of the negotiation after getting drunk in front of the clients; jessica thinks he has had a breakdown; Sheila promises to help.

Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards. Praise strong language points and work on those points that need improving, getting students to say the correct forms. If there is more than one group, do the same with the others. This case study can be done as a discussion between teacher and student followed by a presentation by the student. Appoint a chair for the group and get them to start the discussion. Remind students that they should try to use expressions from the Useful language box on page Note down language points for praise and correction, especially those relating to stress and language used in discussions.

Work on half a dozen points that need improving, getting students to say the correct forms. Circulate, monitor and assist if necessary, clarifying any difficulties. Vocabulary: Eating and drinking Students look at the language of food and describing restaurants.

Listening: Corporate events The Chief Executive of a corporate entertainment company talks about successful corporate entertainment. Reading: Corporate entertainment Students read three entertainment experts' answers to questions about corporate hospitality. Practice File Language review page 25 Skills: Socialising: greetings and small talk Students look at what to say in different situations, listen to people socialising and apply the language in a number of contexts, including a role play.

Case study: Organisinga conference Students analyse the different possible venues for a company conference and choose the most suitable one. It has been said that when two American or European businesspeople meet, they are there to do a deal, but in Asia they are there to establish a relationship. Entertaining in Asia is often used to 'size up' a potential business partner - partner in the sense of future supplier or joint venture associate. Asians will want to know more about their guest, their background and their contacts before going ahead and doing business.

This is an essential part of the business process, not just polite etiquette. The demand for corporate hospitality in the U K has been criticised for making events such as Grand Prix racing or Wimbledon more expensive for ordinary people. But corporate sponsorship of sport and culture brings in large amounts of money, and many such events benefit from this overall. Entertaining in the form of invitations to your host's home exists in some cultures but not others, where work and private life are kept entirely separate. Cultural awareness of norms in these and other areas can lead to better communication and avoidance of misunderstandings.

Companies are spending more time and money these days on cross-cultural training, often but not always in tandem with language training, in order to facilitate better social interaction. Socialising in another language is not easy.

There is more focus on the language itself than in business discussions. Students, rightly, demand formulaic expressions for particular situations. This is often called small talk. But to refer to it as 'small' undervalues its importance. Language learners see it as a minefield of potential problems and, inevitably, gaffes. People have their favourite stories about such mistakes, perhaps ones they made themselves. Ask students to suggest different forms of entertainment in general, rather than in a corporate context Some examples are given below.

Students look at the language of food and describing restaurants. You may want to ask students to copy each collocation into their vocabulary notebooks for future reference. Tell them a little about the things you will be doing, using the table on page 52 of this book as a guide. Students look at different options for entertaining businesspeople. You could ask what the purpose of these events is - to obtain immediate sales or to generate goodwill teach this expression in the longer run? Have a quick brainstorming session to list four or five typical dishes. I f students are from different countries, choose one dish from each country.

With strong classes, you may wish to do this first without reference to the phrases given in the book. It's made with You r students may point out that it is possible to have an aperitif before you look at the menu or ask for the bill before you have the dessert, for example if you are in a hurry. Play the recording once for students to try to answer the questions. If they are having difficulty, play the recording again.

For question 2, point out that entertaining is on the one hand an opportunity to build relationships and to establish a company as a 'serious player', and possibly to get attention in the media. On the other hand, if entertaining is seen as a form of bribery, the effect on image could be negative. If they are all from the same country, ask them to work i n pairs o r small groups.

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Then check answers with the whole class. This could be done very quickly if you want to keep it simple, or could be expanded into a mini-project. Skills: Socialising: greetings and small talk Students look at what to say in different situations, listen to people socialising and apply the language in a number of contexts, including a role play. Insist on the correct use of Hello, I'm I'm with AEG. Language review: Multiword verbs B: Hi. My name is Agatha Ellis. I work for Telef6nica. Students look at the behaviour of multiword verbs in the context of entertaining.

Go through the examples with your students. For example, you say I turned it down not I turned down it. A introduces C to B. Say that Hello, pleased to meet you or even just Hello are adequate responses. S6, 1. Circulate and assist if necessary. Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, concentrating particularly on socialising expressions.

Circulate, monitor and assist if necessary, especially with natural intonation. Then get them to match the utterances. Meanwhile, write the headings on the left of the table below on the board. The venue must: be good value for money have one large conference room, for people have preferably four or more meeting rooms have reasonable access to a n international airport However, don't allow students to pre-empt the task by commenting on the hotels they describe.

However, the food in the restaurant is mainly Mexican, and that may not appeal to everyone. Make sure that each group understands the task it must perform: as members of GFDC's marketing department, choose the hotel that best meets the requirements of the conference. Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, concentrating on the language of advantages and disadvantages. Ask individual students to repeat the correct forms. Circulate and monitor the language of advantages and disadvantages.

One-to-one This case study can be done as a discussion between teacher and student and then as a basis for a presentation by the student. Guest reviews say that it has excellent service but, unfortunately, the business centre has got limited hours This e-mail can be done for homework. C Writing file, page C Resource bank: Writing page Scanned for Agus Suwanto Doing business international ly This unit deals with a U K businessperson having a business meeting in Morocco, an American businessperson posted in Mexico, and four businesspeople talking about their experiences of doing business in South Korea.

Spanish, so she cannot answer questions about her country. She is not used to having business breakfasts, and lunches seem to go on too long. She thinks that colleagues are not interested in her ideas. Instead, they are trying to decide if they like her. Then play the recording. There is less eye contact than she is used to, and people stand too close to her when they talk to her. Each student reads one text and summarises it for the others. Circulate, monitor and assist if necessa ry. She has tried to overcome some of her difficulties by: Possible answers: Joanna should make as much effort as possible to improve her Spanish.

She should observe how things are done in Mexico and do her best to adapt. Because she doesn't speak Spanish well and doesn't seem comfortable in Mexican business culture, she isn't very well suited to being there. However, the fact that she's aware that there are cultural differences and that she's trying to improve her Spanish may mean that she can find creative solutions to the challenges.

Sample answers Do Get information about people you're going to do business with. Have your business card printed in Korean. Present your business card with both hands. Prepare for a lot of red tape. Be patient. Build u p a network of contacts. Don't Forget that the oldest person is often the most senior i n a group of Korean executives. Forget that ideas come from the top in Korean business, but there needs to be consensus. Vocabulary pages 2 take 6 protect 3 fill 7 extend 4 meet 8 enter Past simple and past continuous page 40 1 was listening 8 began 2 had 9 made 3 didn't have 10 was trying 4 was 1 1 had 5 were receiving 12 appeared went We had a project meeting this morning.

The project's going well. It's running on time because everyone is working hard. We all love our work, but we're feeling very stressed out. We're working late every night, but even when we do that, we have to start work the next day at 8. Would you consider starting a flexitime system to reduce stress and overwork?

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Scanned for Agus Suwanto. Classwork - Course Book Further work Startingup Students discuss some ideas to encourage people to start new businesses and give examples of companies in different sectors. Practice File Vocabulary page 28 Vocabulary: Economic terms Students look at words used to describe an economy and put them into practice.

Reading: New business ideas Students read two articles about people who started their own business. Practice File Language review page 29 Skills: Dealingwith numbers Students practise using numbers, fractions, decimals and amounts of money. Students analyse the economies of four countries and propose the best place to build the factory. NEW BUSINESS A recent TV advert for an airline shows an executive receiving an e-mailed presentation from a potential supplier and then quickly forgetting about it when another potential partner walks into the room and gives his presentation in person. The advert is trying to persuade businesspeople of the merits of face-to-face contact in drumming up new business.

Road warriors even if they often travel by plane will probably be necessary to gain new business for some time to come. OJ c: Vl z J'T1 Vl Vl OJ ;;o J'T1 "'TI Clients and suppliers refer to each other as partners to underline the fact that they are in a relationship with mutual benefits: the supplier is making money out of helping the client to make money by providing products or services to customers.

Some cultures give great importance to getting to know potential partners before working with them. There is some truth in the idea that Americans walk into a room expecting to reach a deal immediately; Asians, to build a relationship that may later lead to a deal. See also the Business brief for Unit 6. In the past, companies often worked with large numbers of suppliers. Car manufacturers, for example, worked with numerous component suppliers, perhaps playing them off against each other to demand lower and lower prices. The tendency now is to work more closely with fewer suppliers.

It is much easier to make improvements in these areas when dealing with fewer organisations. This means that it is difficult for new suppliers to break into the privileged circle and get new business. Another form of new business is start-ups. At one end of the scale, there are one-person operations, often started by people who have gained expertise as salaried employees in organisations and then struck out or been forced to strike out on their own.

At the other end, there are serial entrepreneurs, who are gifted at transforming ideas into businesses, and who found a number of start-ups, moving on when each business becomes viable. Their talent lies in combining ideas with people and finance, and they may be less interested in the more mundane activity of running established operations. Breaking into new markets is another form of new business. A company may try to break into e-commerce and may often spend large amounts of money before making any.

Likewise, a company trying to establish itself in a country where it has not been present before can make large losses before seeing any return on investment. It may be necessary to have local partners who are already familiar with the market and are willing to invest in a joint venture.

Ask the students to look at the Overview section on page Tell them a little about the things you will be doing, using the table on page 62 of this book as a guide. Tell them which sections you will be doing in this lesson and which in later lessons. You could point out that the most obvious meaning of resources is money, but that it can also refer to personal qualities or relationships or other factors that can contribute to making a business successful.

Starting up Students discuss some ideas to encourage people to start new businesses and give examples of companies in different sectors. Good transport links are important for your employees to get to work and for salespeople to get to customers, but also for distribution of goods if your business does this. Skilled staff: Students might mention the requirement for a good national education system and good company training of employees.

Training courses provided or funded by the government can be helpful in developing the skills of budding entrepreneurs. Low interest rates mean that it is cheap to borrow money to develop new business activities. Ask them what sorts of businesses they had in mind when discussing the points. Encourage general discussion. Make the activity concrete for the students by asking them which conditions would be most important if they were starting a company. High unemployment may mean that the wages you can pay are lower, but you may not be able to find the people with the skills you want if you set up your business in an area with a high level of joblessness.

Cheap rents for office and factory space are of course more attractive than expensive ones, but having your office in the right place at a higher rent may be more attractive than having it in the wrong place at a lower one. In manufacturing, a strong currency means that imported raw materials are cheaper but that your exports will be more expensive than those from some competing countries. But if your products offer more benefits, they may justify a higher price. A healthy economy is beneficial because business people are able to plan better when there is less uncertainty about future inflation, taxes, etc.

Government grants may be used to try to persuade companies to set up in areas with high unemployment but if the area is unsuitable for other reasons such as unskilled staff, distance from markets, etc. A stable political situation is important for a business to plan for the future. Sudden changes in the political environment can lead to unexpected economic results that could very quickly make doing business virtually impossible. For example, countries such as India, where English is widely spoken in business, may be attractive for this reason - see, for example, the growth of India's software businesses.

Easy access to credit makes financing a business and dealing with unexpected shortfalls simpler. With the whole class, get students to talk about the companies they know, probably ones in their own country I countries. You could ask whether some industries such as rail will or should always be publicly owned because of their national i mportance, safety issues, uncertain return on investment for investors, etc.

Continue circulating, monitoring and assisting if necessary. Ask students what they think a global money-transfer company does a company that sends money from one country to another for individuals and businesses. Article A Play the recording again, or encourage students to read the transcript to check. Each group should appoint a spokesperson. C Resource bank: Listening page Reading: New business ideas Students read two articles about people who started their own business. Students read their assigned article and complete the chart with notes.

While one partner summarises the article, the other partner makes notes. If students do not have much experience, encourage them to focus on hobbies or areas of interest for their company. Go through the examples, pointing out the verb tenses used. Ask students if the tenses would be the same in their own language s. Work on the pronunciation of -th and -ths in one-eighth and six-sevenths. Point out that in Exercise A they should look at overall sense before deciding on the matches. Tell them that, in spoken English, these words are better than approximately, which sounds rather formal.

If they come from different organisations, pair students from different places. Note down language points for praise and correction later, especially in relation to figures. Then divide the class into pairs, allocating the roles A and B.

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Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, concentrating on the use of numbers. Praise strong language points and work on half a dozen points that need improving, getting students to say the correct forms. Discuss, for example, whether the fact that there are a lot of people with an Internet connection is a good indicator of technical sophistication and therefore willingness to buy mobiles, or if the relative age or youth of the population is a factor, etc.

Taka Shimizu Cycles. Meanwhile, write the headings on the left of the table opposite on the board. Encourage them to suggest notes like the ones here, rather than longer sentences. Asia New factory - no. Suggest that they draw a chart interpreting the information in the Course Book with headings like the following. Country B Country C Country D low high average average average average high high high low average high good rail but poor roads and seaports, new airport good airports, road and rail not so good, entire system improving good road and rail, airport, two seaports expensive no, but used to long hours low but rising strong protest Scanned for Agus Suwanto 69 UNIT Point out that high, average, low are used in relation to the other three countries.

Then get students in pairs to complete the rest of the chart. Divide the class into groups of three or four and get them to discuss the relative merits of each place for Taka Shimizu's new factory and to rank them in order. Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially in relation to numbers.

Get each of the small groups from stage 3 to contribute to the decision on the most suitable location for the new factory. You may want to ask your students to include in the e-mail some of the positive points about the country that led them to their choice. Startingup Students look at the four Ps - product, price, promotion and place - and talk about impressive marketing campaigns. Vocabulary: Word partnerships Students look at combinations of words to d o with marketing, and then use them t o talk about particular products.

Listening: Marketing pharmaceuticals Students listen to a marketing manager talking about marketing pharmaceuticals. Practice File Language review page 33 Skills: Telephoning: exchanginginformation Students listen to calls and note down specific information relating to numbers, names, etc. Case study: Wincote International Students analyse the reasons for the underachievement of an outdoor-clothing company's key product range, and propose corrective action. Set the marketing department free to shape new packages.

Don't confine it to coming up with cute names for offerings designed by engineers and accountants. These are the four Ps of the marketing mix, the 'levers' of a company's marketing machine, levers that it can adjust in different ways for different products and different buyers. Another way of looking at this is from the point of view of customers, with the four Cs. Customers are informed about products through advertising, sales literature and so on, but customers also communicate with the seller, for example through customer helplines.

This is a good way for sellers to find out more about customers and their requirements and to change or improve their offer. Thinking of the marketing mix in these terms helps sellers maintain a customer orientation - a focus on customer needs. I'd seen some advertising in a women's magazine for a new luxury shampoo. There was a free sample sachet and I tried it and liked it. Of course, it's not as pleasant as buying in a department store, but I saved at least 30 per cent on the usual price.

Anyway, parking near the department store in my town is impossible and the discount store is just round the corner, so place was an important factor. Ask students for the things that they think of when they see the word. Tell them a little about the things you will be doing, using the table on page 71 of this book as a guide. They think of a product that they have bought recently and talk about the factors that influenced them in the buying process. They may feel that it's unfair to suggest that marketing always makes products seem better than they really are.

Then get students to suggest other campaigns and talk about them in pairs. Vocabulary: Word partnerships Starting up Students look at the four Ps - product, price, promotion and place - and talk about marketing campaigns that have impressed them. Refer to the Business brief for background on the four Ps. Students look at combinations of words to do with marketing and then use them to talk about particular products.

Make up a story if necessary. Get students to do the exercise. Then ask a few students to share their ideas with the whole class. Make sure that they understand that a pharmaceutical company manufactures medicines. Then check as a class. If they are short of ideas, suggest some for them. Try to get a good range so that they do not all work on luxury products. It's probably easier to get students to think of typical individual users, rather than groups of users. Go through the Mercedes example below to give them the idea.

Even if they aren't sure, they should be able to work out whether they are nouns, verbs, etc. You may want to tell students that all the gaps are single words. Start by asking students to think of existing advertising campaigns for these brands or their competitors , and discuss the pros and cons of them. Students decide their answers.

Cross Cultural in Business Negotiation between America and Japan

Read ing: Adidas and the Chinese market 1 F They are not allowed to promote products directly to patients. Students read an article about the expansion of Adidas in China. The idea is that students use language clues to match the questions and answers. Pharmaceutical drugs: A long time required for development and testing; may have a long product life, too. Patents may only last ten years. Computer software: Relatively quick to develop and launch; product life can be extended by new versions of programs. Cars: 'Classic' cars such as the original VWs and Minis can last for generations, but most models will be replaced by car companies every five years or so.

English-language textbooks: Again, some classics have been around for over 30 years now. Development time for a multi-level series can be four to five years. A recent trend has been for bestsellers to be relaunched in new editions, with technological extras. Rubik's cubes: A classic toy product which has remained popular with both children and adults.

It created its own niche. If necessary, tell students that the correct answers are similar to the incorrect ones in structure, e. It is hoping to take its brand upmarket. Skateboards: Again a classic type of product which has become popular with consumers beyond its original target market - e. Famous team football shirts: Notoriously these are often redesigned every few years sometimes after one season , in order to force fans to buy new designs. This can create a lot of resentment and damage a club's reputation. Students look at how questions are formed in the context of a consumer questionnaire.

Write the examples on the board: 6 Do you have a personal wine cellar at home? The price is competitive. They have agreed to the credit terms. Explain the steps like this: 10 Which taste do you prefer? Use the following replacement questions and answers for questions and skip questions 9 and You may need to teach that a juicer is a machine that makes fruit juice from raw fruit. Ask students in pairs to correct the grammatical mistakes and then go through them with the whole class, relating the questions to the above explanations.

Circulate, monitor and assist if necessary, especially with the question forms. If pairs are not discussing wine, check the questions they are asking. With the whole class, clarify points that are causing general difficulty. The members of each group administer their survey to each other. Bring the class to order. Praise strong points and work on half a dozen or so points that still need improvement. Also point out groupings within numbers, with falling intonation at the end of the last group to show that that is the end of the n umber.


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  • For example, French speakers confuse a and r, e and i, g and j. If they come from different language backgrounds, and your students' level requires something more challenging, get them to use addresses from their own countries - this can be quite difficult. Then ask some individual students to talk about a person they spoke to, being careful with the third person. For example: Agneta buys flowers once a week for her house. Divide the class into groups and get them to work on the questions for their surveys. Students listen to calls and note down specific information relating to numbers, names, etc.

    Point out the use of double and 0 mainly in BrE : two three double nine. Americans would say two three nine nine. Explain any difficulties, but don't give the answers to the questions. Sorry, did you say Sorry, I didn't catch that. Go through the answers with the class. Let me read that back to you. What about the new range? Did she say when she'd like to meet? OK, I think I've got all that. Right, I think that's everything. Ask students about dates for the first three days of the month, as they may have a tendency to write 1th, 2th, 3th rather than 1st, 2nd, 3rd.

    The same goes for 21st, 22nd and 23rd and 31st. Point out that it is acceptable to write 1 December, as well as 1st December. Tell them that this way they won't make any mistakes! Work on the intonation of the expressions by getting individual students to repeat them after you. Tell them that during the role play they should use the language from the Useful language box. Use telephone equipment if available. Otherwise get pairs to sit back-to-back. Note language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially in relation to language used whilst telephoning.

    Praise strong language points you heard, and bring students' attention to points that need improving, getting individual students to say the correct forms. Tell them that they will have to make decisions about how to relaunch it. Ask your students to read the background and information about the launch. Then elicit information to complete the column on the right. Suggested answers Consumers are not aware of the new product because the company probably has not promoted it effectively.

    The company has probably not drawn sufficient attention to the innovative new material used to make the product. Explain that they should use the questions in the box as an agenda for their meeting. Note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially ones relating to marketing. Encourage discussion with the whole class.

    What to Look for in a Business English textbook

    If the class is very big, this can be two parallel discussions. Again, note down language points for praise and correction afterwards, especially ones relating to marketing. Then have the whole class make a list of things the company must do to improve the sales of Wincote XWS. This case study can be done as a discussion between teacher and student and then as a basis for a presentation by the student.

    Tell them it can be written on the basis of the ideas for the relaunch that they had in their group or, if they prefer, on their own ideas for the relaunch. Startingup Students look at the different factors in planning various things, from a holiday to a career. Vocabulary: Making plans Students look at various nouns and the verbs that typically precede them. Listening: How important is planning? A business consultant talks about how far ahead businesses should plan, and about successful and failed plans.

    Reading: To plan or not to plan How a software development company became one of Microsoft's key partners without ever writing a business plan. Language review: Talking about future plans Students look at the use of the present continuous and of going to for future plans, and of verbs such as plan, hope, expect, would like and want.

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