Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy: Volume III
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Participation in this mission means Canadian scientists are allocated observation time on the satellite, which enables them to conduct unique astronomy research. The detectors capture each photon of light and record its location and time of arrival.
It investigates the climate and the geology of Mars. Its equipment includes the following. The CSA contributed to MSL by providing the APXS instrument, which analyzes samples to determine their chemical compositions, and by supporting the research activities of three participating scientists. It is currently on its way to the target asteroid, Bennu.
The collected sample will then be returned to Earth in for subsequent investigation. Canada contributed to the mission by providing the OLA instrument and supporting the investigation's four additional scientists.
OLA will scan Bennu's entire surface to create a 3D topographic model of the asteroid in order to set the geological context and to help select a safe sampling site. The JWST mission is currently in its development phase. Its planned launch date is - JWST is expected to be the most powerful space observatory for at least a decade after its launch. The goals of the mission are to search and map the evolution of the earliest stars and galaxies and their formations, and search to see if there is potential for other life in the universe.
It is considered the highest precision star guidance system ever built for a space telescope application and will make it possible for JWST to obtain high-quality images. By measuring very precise oscillations in intensity of the stars it determined their ages and composition. It was also used to observe transiting exoplanets. After that, it was sold to a privately owned company which has continued its operation, making it available for use by science customers for a fee.
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This move represents the first time a Canadian space science mission was privatized. The mission development phase started in , and the satellite was launched in The satellite has been commissioned and has faced several issues. It is now operational but does not fully meet the original requirements for the space astronomy component of its mission. The goal of the mission is to acquire useful metric data on near-Earth asteroids, assess potentially hazardous asteroids and comets.
The contribution of NEOSSat to both Canada and the world is to provide information targeting on the population of near- Earth and potentially hazardous objects. The mission was in development phase from to ASTRO-H was launched in February ; however, two months after the launch, the mission lost communications with the control base in Japan.
CAMS was designed to enable the mission operators to calibrate the data from the Hard X-Ray telescope and thus improve the quality of the images. The mission objectives were to study the structure black holes, active galaxies, and other cosmic phenomena in extreme conditions. Evaluation question 8 Effectiveness : Is there sustained access to scientific data? Finding 8: Canadian instruments on space astronomy and planetary missions have transmitted a constant stream of observations and images of various types and quality over the years.
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Calibrated data must in principle be made accessible in public archives within six 6 months for use by all researchers. The — 16 Departmental Performance Report on sub-programs and sub-sub programs states that five 5 space astronomy and planetary missions provided data to the Canadian scientific community, surpassing the set target of four 4 missions.
These missions and their scientific instruments produced a variety of data types, including infrared, optical, X-ray and metric data, for unique research study purposes.
Data quality has been an issue for NEOSSat since its launch, and testing continues to determine how the satellite can produce useful scientific data. The movement towards open data has increasingly gained momentum in space science. For example, NASA requires principal investigators PIs to ensure that all transmitted data are calibrated and archived within six months of the download date.
In principle, this has broadened public access to the scientific data and given non-mission-related scientists with the appropriate software platforms and tools the opportunity to conduct their own research. While the closure of mission operations signals the end of the data collection phase, pre-and post-operations support for data requirements definition, instrumentation, data reduction and analysis are equally as important. The NASA program provides end-to-end funding for scientific investigations into instrument design, software development, data reduction and returned sample analysis.
Based on the interview data, NASA 's competitive tendering criteria require mission contribution proposals to include funding for these scientific activities. The evaluation's two case studies documented the important role played by the PIs responsible for the science instruments in the success of the MSL and JWST missions to date. Close collaboration was critical with space industry partners and CSA staff to ensure that the instrument design met the data requirement parameters as defined by the science team. One of the barriers to science team participation identified in the interview data was as follows:.
At present, they are considered disadvantaged relative to their research colleagues, who are unencumbered by the responsibilities of operating the science instrument and meeting the open access requirements, which leave little time to contribute to the advancement of knowledge. Finding 9: The number of faculty and students that have either received funding or were employed on mission-related contracts has fluctuated over the evaluation time frame given the irregular cadence of scientific investigations and missions.
The CSA Annual Survey of the Canadian Space Sector has tracked the number of highly qualified personnel HQP by Canadian region relative to the national workforce since ; " HQP measurement consists of tracking the number of employed engineers, scientists and technicians in the Canadian space sector. Issues with the reliability of the reported performance measurement data for fiscal year — also affects the reliability of the entire HQP data set, given the year-over-year fluctuation in the number of faculty members that received SAM - PM funding and the number of students and postdoc fellows who worked on SAM - PM -funded projects.
The evaluation's two case studies do shed some light on the fluctuation in the number of HQPs receiving CSA funding or engaged in funded projects. The very significant fluctuations in HQP performance measurement data at this sub-sub program level may be more understandable given the observed swings in HQP employment reported by the space industry and university partners over the course of a project's life cycle.
Evaluation question 10 Effectiveness : Has Canadian presence in space been expanded through space missions? Finding There have been at least two space astronomy missions and one planetary mission in operation in any given year over the evaluation time frame. The three space astronomy missions ended operations in It is a high-profile and by all accounts successful mission, to which Canada has made a significant contribution as detailed in the case study. The evaluation found that the important contribution made to this prestigious scientific undertaking has enhanced Canada's reputation.
In sum, Canada's role and contributions in space astronomy and planetary missions over the evaluation time frame have enhanced Canada's presence in space. Evaluation question 11 Effectiveness : Has the competence of the space sector in space exploration areas been increased? Finding The competence of university faculty researchers and students involved in scientific investigations related to space astronomy and planetary missions has improved and even attracted support for the creation of specialized research institutes. However, the irregular cadence of these programs has not benefited the space industry partners, who are challenged to maintain revenue streams and tend to lose valuable HQP between contracts.
Based on their personal experiences as members of a mission science team, new and enhanced competencies were achieved in software development, instrumentation, image acquisition, and modulation and data management, among others. From an institutional perspective, participation in space missions facilitated the recruitment to science programs of postdoctoral fellows and high-performing students, whose learning accelerated as a result of working on mission-related projects. The space industry partners also acknowledged the enhanced competencies accrued through their involvement in space astronomy and planetary missions, specifically in terms of large-scale project management, technology innovation, collaboration with academia and international space sector relations experience.
These competencies could be reinvested in future space missions and commercial applications. Key competency areas identified by both stakeholder groups included science instrument development, software development and techniques for data processing, business development, and proposal preparation.
It is noteworthy to point out that space industry partners, even though improvement in competencies is reported, found it challenging to maintain their revenue streams and retain HQP between mission contracts. The procurement rules and practices exercised by foreign space agencies, who also favour their national space industries and scientists when awarding contracts, makes the successful development of alternate space markets challenging.
Evaluation question 12 Effectiveness : Is the Canadian space exploration sector better positioned to seize space opportunities? Finding Canadian university researchers and space industry companies are frequently sought after for their expertise, technology and can-do attitude by international space agencies and other partners. Their demonstrated capability in successfully delivering critical mission components and scientific instruments positioned them for follow-on missions, although some, such as Mars and New Frontiers-4, could not be supported.
The Canadian space exploration sector's involvement in space astronomy and planetary missions was relatively modest given the total number of Canadian universities and space sector companies that could have potentially been involved. Internal document review revealed that there were 14 Canadian universities participating in national and international space astronomy missions in and the same amount at the end of the evaluation time frame in ; for planetary missions, the number of Canadian universities involved rose from 9 to 12 during the same time frame.
Four 4 Canadian space sector companies participated in space astronomy missions and two 2 participated in planetary missions over the course of the evaluation time frame. Although not large, this active segment of the space exploration sector was sought out over the years for its technological expertise and scientific knowledge in astronomy and planetary sciences, such as the design of optical systems for cryogenic applications, star tracking algorithm expertise, science algorithm expertise, data management and processing, and robotics.
A compilation of invitations to participate in international missions from NASA , ESA , JAXA , and the Russian and Indian space agencies attest to the high regard with which Canadian academia and industry partners are held in the international community. The interview data collected in the context of the JWST and MSL case studies confirm that the high visibility of these two NASA missions contributed considerably to Canada's international competitiveness by demonstrating the application of innovative technologies, engineering and scientific know-how.
Successful collaboration between academia, industry and government in both cases was noted as exceptional and uncommon in other jurisdictions. Past experience, demonstrated expertise and a successful track record of accomplishments have led to an increasing number of space exploration opportunities.
There were, however, some opportunities for the Canadian space exploration sector that were not seized for which Canada was well positioned; these include NASA 's Mars and New Frontiers-4 missions, the circumstances of which are described in detail in the evaluation case studies. Other opportunities were not pursued as well, as evidenced by the lists of invitations the CSA received for space astronomy and planetary missions over the evaluation time frame.
Evaluation question 13 Effectiveness : Has the transfer of know-how and technology to other applications been enhanced? Finding The know-how acquired from being a Principal Investigator, science team member or engineer on a space mission has facilitated the mobility of HQP within the space sector across academia, industry or government.
The transfer of space technologies to terrestrial settings occurred in some cases related to optics, robotics, fuel cell and laser technologies, whereas the potential reuse of space technologies for other space missions is clearly a competitive advantage and occurred more often. The evaluation has already assessed in this report the extent to which competencies were enhanced for both industry and academic partners through the participation in space astronomy and planetary missions. The knowledge, expertise and confidence that were acquired with past mission experience, as well as the innovative technologies that were developed, could have been transferred to other space-related or terrestrial settings.
The extent to which this occurred has not been rigorously studied, documented or reported. The flux of large and small space astronomy and planetary mission projects involving Canadian industry and academia over the past decade has created a unique space exploration sector demanding a high degree of mobility among HQP. As previously mentioned, the attraction and retention of HQP by the space industry firms involved has been challenging; according to the interview data, the acquired know-how is often transferred to another setting in academia, government research labs or other recently successful space industry companies.
The acquired know-how is never lost to the extent that HQP tend to remain within the Canadian space sector; however, that has not always been the case due to the lack of opportunities, as previously described. The continued need for a robust space exploration program was a critical factor in the extent to which the acquired know-how is transferred.
The technologies developed for space as described in the JWST and MSL case studies were designed to operate in cryogenic and otherwise extreme environments for which there are few, if any, parallels on Earth. Highly innovative and proven to meet exacting performance standards, these technologies may only find a terrestrial application in the distant future as the innovation process is not predictable, linear or fast.
Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy 7
At the very least, these companies can claim to have a technology innovation edge, having proven performance under the most extreme conditions. A few technologies developed for space uses that were then " spun-out " for terrestrial applications were also identified in the interview and e-survey data; they included a terahertz microscope for breast cancer diagnosis, a spectrometer for nuclear fusion diagnostics, miniature digital cameras for biomedical usage, Mars rover platforms used in heavy duty vehicles, remote sensing instruments for extreme environments, and aerial observation technologies.
Some of these examples overlap with those previously cited in the — 14 Departmental Performance Report and appear to be common points of reference to evidence the potential for economic benefits. What is more evident from the previous finding and supporting text, however, is the high potential for the reuse of know-how and innovative technologies in future space missions. Evaluation question 14 Effectiveness : Has knowledge about the universe, solar system and human capacity to live in space been increased?
Finding With a long history of access to ground and more recently space observatory data, Canadian astronomers have been recognized as leaders for the quality and impact of their research. The near doubling of scientific production of SAM -funded researchers appears to bear this out, although PM -funded researchers have not fared as well.
The JWST case study sets out a brief history of astronomy in Canada, the expansion of the Canadian astronomy community, the development of ground-based and space observatories, and the growth of its professional association, the Canadian Astronomical Society, which plays an influential role in setting the scientific priorities for the community. While somewhat dated and broad in scope, a bibliometric study of the performance and impact of Canadian research in astronomy and astrophysics drew the following conclusion based on the industry standard indicators of average of relative citations ARC and the average of relative impact factors ARIF :.
Canada stands out among world leaders in the field, mainly for the impact of its research on the scientific community second place for ARC and for the quality of its research first place for ARIF. The number of publications almost doubled in the case of space astronomy, from 82 to , while that of planetary sciences increased from 15 to 20 over the evaluation time frame. Footnote 46 The interview data also confirm the scientific production of the space astronomy scientists involved in the ESA Planck mission.
In exchange for Canada's support, Canadian researchers were able to obtain access to the data collected by the mission on the cosmic microwave background. An early data release took place in , followed by a public release of data in and a further, more complete release in On the planetary mission side, the APXS data was also widely used by the science team, two thirds of whom used the data in over 60 peer-reviewed publications.
Evaluation question 15 Effectiveness : Has there been sustained economic growth? Sustained economic growth is generally understood to be the increase in the value of goods and services produced by an economy for an extended period of time without interruption.
The flow-through to the space exploration sector—based on the breakdown by disbursement category of grants and contributions, capital expenditures and contracts—amounted to Footnote 50 Space exploration revenues declined relative to the space sector, from 3. While the direct economic stimulus may not be significant, it may be worthwhile to examine the indirect economic benefits of these programs.
The e-survey data indicated that there were few alternatives for space exploration research projects. It will fund students and postdoctoral fellowships to analyze the data collected by the NIRISS science instrument and publish the research findings. Follow-on contracts with other space agencies are uncommon for individual scientists and the space industry stakeholders, although a number of cases have been identified in this report.
The interview data identified the following challenges facing the Canadian space industry's attempts to export their space-related goods and services: procurement policies and practices that favour the use of national scientists and firms, export control laws and regulations such as the US International Traffic in Arms Regulations , as well as strong international competition. A perceived strength of the Canadian space industry is to leverage innovations developed through participation in space missions and use them to establish niche areas of global technology leadership in optics, robotics, fuel cell and laser technologies.
The Canadian light detection and ranging LiDAR technology was one of the most frequently cited examples of a spin-in technology and space-use application cited in the interview data, and this evidence was supplemented by web-based grey literature. LiDAR uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure variable distances and was extensively used in Canada for terrestrial applications such as remote sensing.
Its TriDAR i. Further development of advanced space-based sensors and autonomous systems for space navigation led to a European export contract to develop and deliver navigation and localization cameras for the ESA ExoMars mission. One of the most frequently cited examples of a spin-out technology and terrestrial application cited in the interview data involved the Lethbridge Alberta-based company Blue Sky Spectroscopy. A review of grey literature obtained by the evaluation revealed that the company " leveraged more than two fold through contracts from the European Space Agency, International partners and public-sector collaborators to develop a Terahertz microscope for breast cancer diagnosis.
The technology will allow pathologists to pre-screen biopsy samples to first determine if they have a cancerous signature before further diagnostic processing, thus reducing the time and cost associated with cancer detection. Assessing the contribution to sustained economic growth of these or other technology innovations applied to terrestrial and space settings would require extensive research.
While such an endeavour is beyond the scope and resources available to this evaluation, it is a necessary undertaking to demonstrate outcome achievement. Nevertheless, the examples cited herein have considerable potential to contribute to economic growth—assuming that the companies involved remain financially viable and are not merged with or sold to foreign corporations and their assets moved outside of Canada.
Two instances of this latter scenario occurring are worth noting based on the case study data and previously reported herein. These events may impact sustained economic growth in a Canadian space exploration sector that has not grown over the past five years. Evaluation question 16 Effectiveness : Has the space exploration profile in Canada and abroad been enhanced? Canada's space exploration visibility abroad may be reduced without participating in proposed missions.
Canada's reputation with NASA as a trusted and reliable partner in space exploration has been enhanced because of these contributions. The Canadian space sector has long had a can-do reputation among international space agency partners for delivering high-value science instruments and subsystems with low budgets and on schedule. The interview data also confirm that Canadian scientists are highly regarded by their international peers and are sought after teammates.
Canada's responsiveness to invitations to participate in space missions has not always been clear or timely. For example, for NASA 's Mars , the Government of Canada confirmed that it would not participate only near the end of the instrument selection process. This came as a disappointment to international partners and Canadian stakeholders who had submitted proposals at risk, without formal support from the CSA.
The interview data that could be collected from this important stakeholder group were telling in this regard: " our cooperation with Canada in space science has been spotty at best in the recent decade, " and " Canada once played an important role, so it would be regrettable if the capacity and capabilities developed in Canada were lost. With media coverage and interest, national lay press articles were published about Canadian space astronomy missions or missions with Canadian participation, whereas international lay press articles were published over the evaluation timeframe.
Similarly, national lay press articles were published regarding Canadian participation in planetary missions, whereas international lay press articles were published. This section presents the findings for the efficiency evaluation issues: implementation process efficiencies, leveraging, adequacy of resources and cost-efficiencies. Evaluation question 17 Efficiency : To what extent is the program delivering outputs and achieving outcomes in the most efficient manner?
Perceptions of efficiency in the interview data varied widely depending on the key stakeholder group. Interview respondents were asked to rate the two programs separately on a five-point scale. Some of the principal explanations drawn from the interview data for these efficiency ratings are summarized below.
The absence of a long-term strategic plan was attributed in the internal and external interview data with the adoption of an ad hoc and reactive decision-making process in response to the priorities identified by the Canadian science community and invitations received and in mission approvals; this constrained the capacity of Canada to develop an innovative research program in space exploration and to prioritize its missions accordingly.
The uncertainty of funding and the lengthy decision-making process required for mission approvals imposed constraints on the CSA 's capacity to commit to proposed space missions and adapt to the time frame of its space agency partners. This incurred significant costs on academia and industry partners positioning themselves for upcoming missions, collaborating on proposals and advocating for their approval. Also worth mentioning, there are instances where the CSA has committed to a mission, such as the case of MATMOS , but international partners withdrew, and consequently Canada's contribution was not required anymore.
In contrast, the higher efficiency ratings given by internal interview respondents were justified because of the leveraging effect, which augmented cost-effectiveness. Al Akerman, and Matthew B. Undetected location. NO YES. Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 3. Selected type: Hardcover.
Added to Your Shopping Cart. View on Wiley Online Library. This is a dummy description. A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement tools, techniques, and applications "When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science.
Giles Kim Bullough